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Healthy moms and healthy infants: 12 years of successful mother to child HIV transmission prevention in a community health center in Bamako, Mali. Financial education and improved financial management positively impacts transgender persons' livelihoods and reduces high-risk behaviours in Indonesia. Men's perspectives on the impact of female-directed cash transfers on gender relations: Findings from the HPTN qualitative study.

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Homelessness and incarceration are associated with elevated mortality rate among people living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: Findings from the CIHR-funded positive spaces, healthy places study. Effect of family conferencing on psychological stress of caregivers: Single blinded randomized control trial on caregivers of infected children attending a HIV clinic in North Central Nigeria over 3 months. On air with positive living youth outreach: How HIV-positive youth in Lesotho are using radio and community outreach to empower their peers and combat stigma. Interventions for healthcare providers to improve treatment access and reduce stigma and discrimination towards MSM-TG.

Intersectionality of stigmas in Senegal: Differences in stigma outcomes among people living with HIV, transgender women, and cisgender men who have sex with men. Reducing the negative impact of empty ARV bottles on environement by recycling them into Artifacts as communication tools, income generating household products and souvenirs for future generations. Stigma-reduction m-health programming and measurement: Evaluation study of most-at risk and most-in need populations in urban India. Low demand for harm reduction services and assistance for young people who use drugs in Makeyevka, Ukraine.

Post-discharge peer telephone support program to help complex clients transition from hospital to community. The association between medical pluralism and treatment adherence among patients initiated on antiretroviral treatment in rural South Africa: A prospective cohort study. Prevalence of traditional medicine use by pregnant HIV positive women in an urban setting in Zimbabwe: A cross sectional study. Transport challenges can hinder access to HIV care and treatment services in fishing communities around Lake Victoria in Uganda: A qualitative study. Adversities, social support, resilience, and health-related quality of life among people living with HIV in Guangxi, China.

Anal cancer screening in HIV-infected youth at an urban community health center: Performance evaluation. Health provider perspectives on implementation of same day ART initiation 6 months after policy change in South Africa. The precarious balancing act between evidence and policy making; key factors that affect evidence use for HIV prevention policy. Unclogging antiretroviral therapy clinics for people living with HIV: Success of community based delivery of antiretrovirals in Cameroon. Toward early diagnosis of HIV infection: A population-based case-control study of routine opt-out testing services in Taiwan.

Scaling up harm reduction, but too slowly: Removing legal barriers to supervised consumption services in Canada. Trilateral cooperation between Brazil, Japan and Mozambique: Unifying practices and expertise to strengthen the decentralization process in Gaza and Nampula provinces in Mozambique. The case of Peru: Evidence-based sexuality education in the curriculum contributes to reduce inequalities and to prevent HIV in schools. Equal rights to health: Reducing discrimination towards persons living with HIV in healthcare settings in China. A human rights approach to successfully change national aviation laws to enable people living with HIV to train as pilots.

Assessing the effect of test and start policy on HIV treatment uptake in Nigeria: A segmented regression analysis. Humanitarian crisis and access to HIV services in Nigeria: An analysis of national ART programme coverage from - in states with humanitarian crisis. Advocacy for gender affirmation care in the United States: Learning from the injectable estrogen shortage and its implications for HIV. Better targeting of existing investments in prevention is needed to focus on interventions with proven impact: Prevention resources need to double by to reach Fast Track targets.

Trends of rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy among newly diagnosed HIV-positive patients at a tertiary referral center in Taiwan. Removing legal barriers to reduce HIV-related impacts on key populations in ten African countries. Independent multi-country review of community engagement in global fund grant processes: Lessons learned, key principles, and ways forward. Results from an impact evaluation. Building bridges to improve HIV-positive women's access to breast-milk substitutes: Research from six different regions in the Russian Federation.

The working group on criminalization of HIV exposure: A multisector partnership at the intersection of law, policy and science. A critical evaluation of drug policy environment in Ukraine: Implications for prevention and treatment of substance use disorders and HIV among people who use drugs. Evaluating progress towards triple elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B in the Netherlands, Using the UN general assembly special session and the high level meeting on drugs to strengthen the HIV response for people who inject drugs. Concerns on methodology and transparency.

Evaluation of Integrated social marketing campaign to promote HIV treatment and health insurance coverage in Vietnam. The peer navigation model successfully facilitates linkage of eligible key populations to treatment in India. Desired characteristics of an eHealth enabled peer support intervention to address psychosocial and health system barriers to care among HIV-positive men who have sex with men in China. Nurse-led open access program to improve engagement in HIV treatment and care services at an urban community health center.

The role of community organisations in negotiating with generic suppliers for equitable access to PrEP. Equitable access of PMTCT services in humanitarian setting with the involvement of conflict affected community. There may be harm in not asking: The state of behavioral and social science research in global HIV prevention research.

Active position during procurement process to cut the price of ARVs and diagnostic helps to expand the access to treatment. Integration of prevention of mother-to-child transmission within antenatal and postnatal care, and its impact on HIV service delivery and utilization: A mixed methods study in rural Tanzania and Malawi. PrEP for priority populations in Vietnam has the potential to cost-effectively decrease HIV incidence in urban settings: A mathematical modeling analysis. Cost and efficiency of short messing service SMS and peer navigation to improve linkage and retention for patients newly enrolled in HIV care in South Africa.

Model estimated cost-effectiveness of integrating cervical cancer screening and treatment with LEEP vs.


Capacity building of rural healthcare providers used as a tool to scale-up early infant diagnosis in Southeast Nigeria. Characteristics and costs of optimized background therapy for treatment of heavily treatment-experienced adults with multidrug-resistant HIV-1 in the US: A clinical trial analysis. Cost data to inform purchasing of antiretroviral treatment services across borders: A cross-country comparison of first and second line adult and pediatric antiretroviral treatment costs in Kenya, Rwanda and Uganda.

Hepatitis C treatment regimens in Russia in Drug choice compromises in the context of intellectual property and registration barriers. Enhancing program efficiency through service integration, population focus and geographic localization: Finding and treating HIV, syphilis, and cervical cancer in Zambia.

Cost effectiveness analysis of nationally scaled point-of-care diagnostic platforms compared to central laboratory models for routine viral load monitoring of HIV-positive Kenyans on antiretroviral therapy. Viral hepatitis C elimination strategy in Vietnam: Willingness to pay for treatment among patients receiving antiretroviral therapy and methadone treatment.

Challenges to implementation of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Kalimantan, Indonesia.

Paraprofessional home-visiting improves maternal caregiving for mothers living with and without HIV over the first two years of life in rural South Africa. Achieving the first two 90s through provider-initiated testing and counselling at family planning clinics in Ibadan, South West Nigeria.

Clinical characteristics of people with tuberculosis drug resistant according to HIV status in Brazil.

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Engaging private medical practitioners for early HIV screening and treatment initiation of tuberculosis TB patients in Maharashtra. Community health workers facilitate access to tuberculosis TB diagnostic services for clients with limited access to health care. Task shifting increased Isoniazid preventive therapy uptake and completion among people living with HIV in secondary health facilities South-East Nigeria. Strengthening capacity of county planning and budgeting for sustainable health financing: An experience from the devolved health system in Lamu County, Kenya.

Increasing availability and access to life-saving ART commodities through improved inventory management and forecasting using a commodity management supportive supervision scored checklist: Case study of five coastal counties of Kenya. Reaching at-risk adolescent men who have sex with men through social media and instant messaging in Thailand for HIV prevention service provision.

Providing peer-led female sexual reproductive health SRH services to adolescents in rural South Africa: Lessons learned from delivering youth services in rural KwaZulu-Natal. Addressing stigma and discrimination in Tanzania: The missing piece to make a health system work for youth. Operationalizing and implementing the U.

The potential impact of antiretroviral therapy on fertility in sub-Saharan Africa

Adolescent-specific provider training and provision of services is associated with retention in Kenyan HIV clinics. Sustainable laboratories for key population-led HIV services in Thailand: Mentoring and twinning lead to government accreditation and financing. Barriers in access to treatment, care and support services for people living with HIV in Bangladesh. Peer navigators develop mobile application for enhancing HIV knowledge in the fight against stigma among youths in Western Kenya. Healthcare workers' and patients' experiences during implementation of the Fast Track model: Piloting differentiated ART service delivery in Zambia.

The effectiveness of different pediatric HIV testing approaches in reaching the first 90 in Lesotho. Chikurubi maximum prison: Good practice to support the implementation and scale-up of differentiated ART delivery for key populations living in prisons and correctional facilities. Leveraging a community-led HIV testing approach to reach female sex workers in the geographic areas uncovered by the national program in India.

Crowdsourcing to expand HIV testing services: A pragmatic, stepped wedge randomized controlled trial in China. Improving retention of HIV positive clients in care by conducting real time follow up of clients using full time community health workers CHWs : An experience of five districts in Western Uganda. An innovative approach to HIV prevention: Equipping healthcare providers with knowledge, tools and empathy to provide inclusive, rights based and gender sensitive services to MSM and TG.

Keeping the next generation HIV free: Collaborative effort on scaling up of early infant diagnosis in Myanmar. Building the capacity of health care workers and rural clinics to implement early infant diagnosis in Zimbabwe. Understanding barriers and needed actions to improve HIV care for children in low income settings: Insights from five Ugandan districts. A move towards targeted case-finding: A comparison of HIV testing modalities implemented by two unfinished business clusters.

Improvements in pediatric HIV case identification across 17 health facilities in Lagos, Nigeria: A quality improvement collaborative approach. Improving the efficiency and timeliness of healthcare workers to manage HIV viral load and EID patients through a digital result reporting platform. Patients' satisfaction with HIV care providers in public health facilities in Lusaka - a study of patients who were lost-to-follow-up from HIV care and treatment.

Determining denominator - national effort to firm data on Lost to Follow up LFU on treatment for optimization of resources. Early linkage to care by index patient design at large scale - experience from Vihaan care and support programme India. How a mobile HIV testing service in South Africa uses a centralised call centre to strengthen linkage to care among newly-diagnosed HIV positive clients.

High linkage and retention in HIV treatment among men who have sex with men receiving health navigation services in Guatemala City. Status of provision of isoniazid preventive therapy for people living with HIV and lessons learnt from the challenges in the programmatic implementation and expansion in India. Role of onsite mentorship and coaching in reducing viral load sample rejection rates: A case study of Kabarole district in western Uganda. Time to antiretroviral therapy initiation under universal test and treat strategy in Swaziland: A stepped-wedge implementation trial.

Uganda bids to host the next international HIV/AIDS conference

Assessment of barriers towards achieving the 3 rd Experiences from Midlands province in Zimbabwe. Understanding the impact of policies for delivering universal antiretroviral therapy on the health workforce in Tanzania and Malawi: Evidence from repeated health facility surveys from and qualitative interviews. Scaling-up HIV testing, treatment, care and support for men who have sex with men, transgender and sex workers in Liberia.

Reaching the rural in Uganda: A cluster-randomised exploration of community health entrepreneurs' impact on sexual and reproductive health. Medicycles: Using micro-financed motorcycle taxis and cost-sharing to ensure continuity of care in difficult-to-reach Ugandan villages. Main adverse reactions motivating the substitution of Dolutegravir in antiretroviral therapy regimens in Brazil.

Health4All: A technology-enabled, locally relevant campaign to reduce stigma and discrimination against key populations. Implementation of a comprehensive HIV and stimulant prevention intervention with Cambodian female entertainment and sex workers reduces sexual and drug risk and addresses multiple vulnerabilities. Increasing HIV screening, diagnosis, and treatment in a large Zambian correctional facility: Interim results from a prison-focused universal test and treat program. Partnering with correctional authorities to improve access to HIV prevention and linkage to antiretroviral therapy for prisoners in Zambia.

Virtual communities of practice effectively support providers attending to underserved populations in settings with high HIV burden in Africa and Asia. Adaptation, implementation and evaluation of a tele-mentoring program for the Namibian HIV health workforce. Reaching underserved populations living with HCV: Pairing treatment with intensive navigation to improve adherence and completion of HCV treatment during and after incarceration in San Francisco Jails.

The Grantee as an essential public health service manager in collaborative governance for care and treatment of target populations. Cascade model of mentorship for mixed cadre HIV prevention outreach teams to enhance health services among female sex workers in East Central Uganda, process, achievements, lessons and conclusions. A conceptual model for linking and transitioning previously incarcerated women with HIV in the US South to clinical and social services to support post-release adjustment. Task shifting for point-of-care early infant diagnosis testing: Comparison of error rates between nurses and specialized laboratory trained personnel.

Acceptability and effectiveness of lay provider HIV testing among key populations in Vietnam: Results from an intervention evaluation. Can oral fluid based rapid HIV test facilitated by Frontline health workers provide a feasible option for screening among pregnant women in rural India? Predictors of controlled CD4 count and blood pressure in an integrated chronic disease management model in a rural South African setting. Substantial hypertension care-seeking costs for patients on ART in Malawi: A survey of patients receiving treatment for HIV at an integrated care site.

Lessons learned from patient and health worker experiences. Decentralization of antiretroviral therapy to the family health strategy: Effectiveness of a new delivery strategy for HIV care in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Community HIV care and treatment for female sex workers in Ethiopia: Successful service provision through drop in centers.

Barriers and facilitators to implementation of trauma-informed care services at a large, urban HIV treatment center in the Southern United States. Empowerment is a key factor in wellness and healing for women living with HIV who have experienced lifetime trauma. Towards resilient health systems through government centred partnerships using a culture change model: A paradigm shift in the Malawi southern region.

Providers in private practices are indispensable to achieving the targets for triple 90 in HIV epidemic control: Experiences from Private Health Sector Project in Ethiopia. In-service biomedical training in Kenya: Upskilling technicians on lab equipment critical to the HIV clinical cascade. Building effective partnerships to achieve the treatment targets: Lessons in advocacy from Uganda.

Methadone maintenance therapy uptake, retention, and linkage for people who inject drugs transitioning from prison to the community in Kyrgyzstan: Evaluation of a national program. Dating app and HIV - making possible an international partnership within the Brazilian government. Increasing the pool of health workers available for HIV care and treatment services in Kenya through sustainable financing? Increased HIV testing and case finding in diverse clinical settings targeting young men who have sex with men in Bali.

Corrections to community care: An innovate partnership to ensure HIV linkage to care and viral suppression for incarcerated individuals in New York state prisons. Increasing HIV case identification and linkage to antiretroviral therapy through nutrition screening: Lessons learned from the Cote d'Ivoire nutrition and community-facility linkages activity. Two-component self-assembling nanoparticle vaccines that present multiple HIV-1 envelope trimers. A CD4-mimetic compound enhances vaccine efficacy against stringent immunodeficiency virus challenge.

HIV combined with gp Env protein. Comparative effectiveness of first-line antiretroviral therapy regimens: Results from a large real-world cohort in Brazil after the implementation of Dolutegravir.

Simplification to dolutegravir monotherapy is non-inferior compared to continuation of combination antiretroviral therapy in patients who initiated combination antiretroviral therapy during primary HIV infection: A randomized, controlled, non-inferiority trial. Drug susceptibility testing, HIV-coinfection and outcomes in patients treated for tuberculosis in low- and middle-income settings.

Clinical outcomes with bedaquiline use when substituted for second-line injectable agents in multidrug resistant tuberculosis: A retrospective cohort study. Profile of adverse events in a national VMMC program in Mozambique : Reduction in AE with a national scale-up, but three events require further attention. Results from a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate a microfinance and peer health leadership intervention for HIV and intimate partner violence prevention among social networks of young Tanzanian men.

Integrating oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis PrEP in a public family planning facility and youth center to inform national roll out in Zimbabwe. Study on drug consumption rooms on current practice and future capacity to address communicable diseases like HCV. Increased methadone dose reduces illicit drug injection among HIV negative methadone clients in Myanmar. Combatting the HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs in ground zero of the war on drugs - the Afghan experience. Step by step: Ending unjust HIV criminalization in Canada through community advocacy based on science and rights.

Marginalized women living with HIV at increased risk of viral load suppression failure: Implications for prosecutorial guidelines regarding criminalization of HIV non-disclosure in Canada and globally. What shall be done if donor funding to fight HIV drastically decreases. Progressive Botswana court affirms that legal recognition of gender identity is at core of human dignity - transgender persons are fully entitled to constitutional protection.

The impact of performance-based financing on the delivery of HIV testing, prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral delivery in the Cameroon health system. Diagnosing and treating more infants, faster: Findings from the first multi-country evaluation of routine point-of-care early infant diagnosis in eight sub-Saharan countries.

Improving technical efficiency: Reaching first 90 through community index HIV sexual network testing in Zimbabwe. The case of FHI Zimbabwe. Cost-of-testing-per-new-HIV-diagnosis as a metric for monitoring cost-effectiveness of testing programmes in low income settings in Southern Africa: Health economic modelling analysis. Association between immunogenetic factors and post-treatment control of HIV-1 infection. High mortality among women living with HIV enrolled in Canada's largest community-based cohort study.

Process as product: Implementing participatory, rights-based research with female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and transgender women. Diverging perspectives on the role of a community advisory board at a biomedical HIV prevention research centre in South Africa. Toward standardized metrics for the conduct of community engagement in HIV biomedical prevention research studies.

Optimizing access for the last mile: Geospatial cost model for point of care viral load instrument placement in Zambia. Use of geographic information system mapping for scaling-up voluntary medical male circumcision services in Tanzania. High incidence of hepatitis C virus re- infections among PrEP users in the Netherlands: Implications for prevention, monitoring and treatment. Drug-drug interactions between the use of feminizing hormone therapy and pre-exposure prophylaxis among transgender women: The iFACT study.

Many introductions but little transmission of HIV-1 non-B subtypes amongst heterosexuals in the Netherlands. Pol replicative capacity impacts disease progression in HIV-1 subtype C infection: Implications for vaccine design. SAMHD1 has a central role in restricting HIV-1 in macrophages and is responsive to interferons, viral sensing and tyrosine kinase inhibition. Broadly neutralizing plasma antibodies obtained from an Indian donor with specificity to linear epitopes in V1 and V4 region of viral Env preferentially neutralize HIV-1 clade C.

Generation of immunogens based on virus-like particles carrying HIV-1 envelopes from patients with broadly neutralizing responses within the first 6 months of infection. Characterization of the humoral response directed against the Antisense Protein of HIV-1 in patients. The lower spare respiratory and glycolytic capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from MSM is not associated with CMV infection. Changes in circulating gamma delta T cell subset numbers in immunological and virological responders and non-responders among HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy.

Selective immune cell depletion of mycobacterium tuberculosis Mtb in whole-blood bactericidal assay WBA. Genital inflammation and cervical T-cell activation associated with sexually transmitted infections in adolescent girls and young women at high risk of HIV infection. Differential genital inflammation associated with Chlamydia trachomatis sequence types in adolescent girls and young women at high risk of HIV infection. Adapting HIV testing algorithms and clinical advice for people with persistently indeterminate test results - a novel national referral clinical service.

Are all people on antiretroviral treatment having their HIV viral load monitored? Gaps analysis in Latin America and the Caribbean. A method to quantify dolutegravir, poised to become first-line therapy worldwide, in small hair samples as a metric of adherence and exposure. Next generation sequencing of pooled samples provides comparable data to sanger sequencing for the detection of HIV protease inhibitor mutations. Satisfaction with anal cancer screening among men who have sex with men who are at risk for and living with HIV in Abuja, Nigeria.

Plasma biomarkers of systemic inflammation and immune activation in advanced HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa before and during antiretroviral therapy. Subjective and objective improvement on cognition after discontinuing efavirenz in asymptomatic HIV patients. Different association pattern of each cognitive impairment with age and time of infection in HIV-infected patients.

Brain metabolic markers in HIV-infected individuals with or without antiretroviral therapy by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Higher prevalence of neurocognitive impairment among aging HIV-infected women despite lower comorbidities than men. Association between changes in hazardous drinking and subsequent antiretroviral medication adherence, HIV viral control, and condomless sex. Association between access to public distribution system, food security and depression among female sex workers in India.

Characteristics of HIV positive Rwandan women testing positive for human papillomavirus HPV and visual inspection after acetic acid VIA : Implications for cervical cancer prevention in resource limited settings. Endothelial colony forming cell function is reduced and negatively associated with activated monocytes in HIV. HIV infection, antiretroviral therapy and stroke mortality in South Africa: A population-based cohort study. Age moderates the association between HIV infection and carotid intima media thickness: Evidence for elevated risk in younger HIV-infected individuals.

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Menopause, cardiovascular risk factors, and cerebrovascular function in the women's interagency HIV study. Prevalence and risk factors associated with carotid plaque and intima-medial thickness in virologically suppressed HIV-infected Asians. Changes in cardiovascular risk calculation and in fasting lipids in virologically suppressed patients randomized to switch to tenofovir alafenamide versus continuing abacavir.

Cardiovascular disease risk assessments and fasting lipid changes in virologically suppressed patients randomized to switch to tenofovir alafenamide versus continuing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. The potential impact of integrating services for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular outcomes into HIV care in Kenya: A mathematical modelling study. Improvement in the prediction of cardiovascular events by adding HIV-viral load to a cardiovascular risk scale.

Chronic disease prevalence and management in Australian adults with HIV: Use of a national longitudinal general practice dataset to identify and address gaps in patient care. Bone mineral density and prevalence of osteoporosis in HIV-infected patients in comparison with a reference Spanish population: The importance of local normative ranges. Estimates of glomerular filtration rate in HIV infected individuals using creatinine and cystatin c based measurements.

The prevalence of impaired renal function in well-treated people living with HIV is low but remains higher than in uninfected controls. Weight gain after ARV initiation correlates with increased inflammatory biomarkers and protease inhibitor usage. Immune activation and insulin resistance: Evaluating the association between microbial translocation and insulin resistance in HIV-infected adults in Uganda; a cross-sectional analysis.

Immunosuppression and HIV viremia associated with increased atherogenic cholesterol concentrations in older people with HIV. Prevalence and risk factors for significant liver fibrosis evaluated by non-invasive markers in HIV-infected Thais. Microbiota and gut-liver axis in HIV mono-infection: A pilot study of the impact of the gut microbiome on liver disease. Elderly patients on antiretroviral therapy with dolutegravir are at increased risk for ALT elevation.

Beyond the 60s: Changing co-morbidities in people living with HIV aged over 60 attending clinic in and Sleep and Circadian disruption interact with HIV, contributing to inflammation and immune activation. Prevalence of and factors associated with anemia among HIV-infected adults in a multi-site African cohort.

Obstructive sleep apnea among HIV-infected persons in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era: A nation-wide longitudinal cohort study in Taiwan, - Computed tomography quantification of emphysema in people living with HIV and uninfected controls. Prevalence of diarrhea in HIV clinical trials in the recent post-combined antiretroviral therapy cART era: Analysis of data from 39 clinical trials from in over 20, patients. The relationship between co-morbidities, physical activity and exercise level in persons living with HIV. Hospitalisations over a year follow-up in a cohort of adults living with HIV with sustained viral suppression in Australia.

Elevations of serum creatine kinase among HIV-positive individuals receiving dolutegravir-based therapy versus non-integrase inhibitor-based therapy. Exploring declines in mortality after ART initiation: Evidence from seven sub-Saharan African population-based studies between and Antiretroviral treatment scheme complexity predicts AIDS mortality in in Mexico: A longitudinal study from to Universal test and treat: Loss to follow-up among patients initiated on antiretroviral therapy in South Africa under evidence-based guidelines.

Assessing the clinical significance of persistent low level viremia on subsequent virologic failure.

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High rates of female sterilization could impact HIV prevalence in high burden areas in India - couple-centered intervention strategies may help in consolidation of prevention gains. Alcohol consumption and its associations with other substance use and HIV infection in Rakai, Uganda. HIV transmission clustering among gay men in Nigeria: A genetic distance clustering analysis using a social network model.

Characterizing resilience and viral load among midlife and older gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men. Increasing prevalence rate among MSM in Brazil: Results of a comparison of and national survey. Why local terms are important: Different behavior and risk profiles of common local variants of men who have sex with men in Myanmar. Innovative strategies through peer segmentation to reach men who have sex with men MSM in Ghana. HIV treatment and prevention needs assessment: Comparison between younger and older men who have sex with men in Nigeria.

Quality of life and associated factors among men who have sex with men in a metropolis in Brazil. Prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections and their association with sexual behavior and substance use among MSM in Lebanon. Human immunodeficiency virus HIV and the association of male circumcision with HIV, and history of Viral and non-viral sexually transmitted infections in Rwandan men who have sex with men.

What is happening to condom use? A longitudinal sexual event-level analysis of anal intercourse by partner HIV status concordance among men who have sex with men in Vancouver, Canada. Prevalence and correlates of group sex participation alongside other risky sexual practices among men who have sex with men in Malawi. HIV prevalence and incidence among men who have sex with men attending community-based HIV testing and counseling clinics in metropolitan Manila, Transactional sex among men who have sex with men participating in the CohMSM prospective cohort study in West Africa.

Factors associated with discrimination based on sexual orientation among MSM in 12 Brazilian cities. Recent decreases in unsuppressed viral load among HIV-positive men who have sex with men in Vancouver, Canada from Virologic outcomes of perinatally infected adolescents in the period of early adolescence in South Africa years. Timing of maternal ART and mortality risk in HIV-exposed uninfected infants: Findings from a prospective cohort of a nationally representative sample of mother-infant pairs from Zimbabwe Special cases in the diagnosis of HIV-1 perinatally infected children younger than month-old from Argentina.

Mapping and population size estimates of street children in six cities with extrapolation to national level in Iran. Efficacy of intensive adherence counselling in reversing virologic failure in adolescents on long-term ART in Uganda. Forty percent reduction in HIV prevalence among randomly sampled female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya following intensive prevention programmes.

The HIV care cascade and virologic response over time among transgender people in a large multi-site Canadian cohort. Patterns of HIV risk and viremia among people who inject drugs in a community-based cohort in Baltimore, Maryland. Characterizing the role of sexual violence in potentiating HIV risks among transgender women in sub-Saharan Africa. Global assessment of the availability of condoms and conjugal visits in prisons: Preliminary results of a global prison survey commissioned by UNODC. Building bridges, not walls: Prevalence and correlates of injecting with United States residents among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico.

The paradox of migration: Assessing protective and risk factors among transgender women in Lima, Peru. Caregiver depression and child neuropsychological outcomes in an observational study carried out in four sub-Saharan countries. Gender-affirming genital surgery associated with reduced HIV sexual risk among transgender women: A respondent driven-sampling survey. Disparities in viral suppression and non-adherence to antiretroviral medicines among women living with HIV infection, - Prevalence and risk factors for unsuppressed viral load among HIV positive female sex workers on antiretroviral therapy in Kampala, Uganda.

Factors associated with self-reported utilization of sexual and reproductive health services among Roma women in Macedonia. Perceived undertreated pain is associated with overdose among older HIV-positive people who inject drugs in Vancouver, Canada. Latent profiles of behavioral and sexual risk for HIV-negative and positive young African American men who have sex with men: Implication for HIV prevention and pre-exposure prophylaxis.

The young, the old and the risky: HIV risk factors by age among voluntary medical male circumcision clients in Zambia Factors associated with mother-child HIV transmission in Uruguay: The importance of goals in the elimination strategy. Comorbidities and antiretroviral therapy treatment failure synergies: A case-control study in low resource settings - Kadoma, Zimbabwe An increase in rates of HIV infection among people who inject drugs in Petropavlovsk, Kazakhstan, Predictors of condomless sex among non-suppressed adolescent MSM and transgender women in the United States.

Sexual transmission can be prevented through condom use both in heterosexual and homosexual relationships. The following chart shows that while globally life expectancy has been increasing since the s, several countries in Sub-Saharan Africa saw a major decrease in life expectancy with the onset of the AIDS crisis around Life expectancy has started to increase again since the early s, but for many of the countries shown, levels have not yet returned to life expectancies prior to the AIDS crisis.

Tuberculosis TB is the leading HIV-associated opportunistic infection in low- and middle- income countries, and it is a leading cause of death globally among people living with HIV. Death due to tuberculosis still remains high among people living with HIV, however the number of deaths is decreasing.

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The following chart shows international and domestic spending on HIV, broken down by donor, and region in low- and middle-income countries. Previously, we have seen that AIDs deaths are still steadily increasing in the Middle East and North Africa, which may partially be due to the lack of domestic resources placed on ART therapy in this region.

Discrimination towards those living with HIV remains common in many countries. High-coverage data on discrimination is scarce, however in the charts below we see the share of the population with discriminatory attitudes across a number of countries. The presented figures show the share of respondents who had previously heard of HIV who said they would not buy from a vendor with HIV.

In a number of countries more than half of respondents showed discriminatory attitudes. In Guinea, this share was as high as 80 percent. The usual antiretroviral therapy regimen combines three or more different medicines, such as two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors NRTI and a protease inhibitor, two nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors and a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor NNRTI , or other combinations.

More recently, entry inhibitors and integrase inhibitors have joined the range of treatment options. Suboptimal regimens are monotherapy and dual therapy. The term highly active antiretroviral therapy was commonly used after the demonstration of excellent virological and clinical response to combinations of three or more antiretroviral medicines. Highly active is not needed as a qualification, however, and the term is no longer commonly used. ARV refers to antiretroviral medicines. It should only be used when referring to the medicines themselves and not to their use.

The population may be all of the inhabitants of a given geographic area, the population of a school or similar institution or everyone of a certain age or sex such as the children or women of a region. An epidemic may be restricted to one locale an outbreak , be more general an epidemic or be global a pandemic.

Common diseases that occur at a constant but relatively high rate in the population are said to be endemic. The test result of a person who has acquired HIV but is in the window period between HIV exposure and detection of antibodies also will be negative. Results may occasionally be false-positive, especially in infants up to 18 months of age who are carrying maternal antibodies. Cumulative incidence may be expressed as the number of new cases arising in a given period in a specified population.

UNAIDS reports the estimated number of incident cases that occurred in the past year among people aged 15—49 years and 0—14 years. Young people play a game about HIV knowledge at an event to promote sexual and reproductive health among adolescents. UNICEF supports governments and communities in their efforts to reduce inequities in HIV service delivery and to address the underlying factors of gender, age and poverty that make people vulnerable to HIV. UNICEF supports governments to deliver services that prevent mother-to-child transmission, test infants early, link children diagnosed with HIV to treatment and care and prevent new HIV infections in adolescents.

To do this, UNICEF implements country-specific priorities and interventions and integrates HIV prevention and treatment with maternal, newborn and child health, nutrition, and early childhood development services. We also strengthen and leverage partnerships to widen the reach and impact of our efforts on the ground. Increased access to lifelong treatment for pregnant and breastfeeding women has significantly reduced the number of HIV infections among children. Since , the number of children 0—19 years newly infected with HIV decreased by 49 per cent, and 1.

Read more on this project. They enable infants infected with HIV to start treatment earlier and help reduce mortality in the early months of their lives. If current trends continue 1. Young children are often diagnosed and treated too late. In sub-Saharan Africa, nearly three times as many adolescent girls were newly infected with HIV in , compared with adolescent boys 15—19 years. The world pledged to end AIDS by While we have seen remarkable progress in the past decade among children aged years, adolescents have been left behind in HIV prevention efforts.

A staggering , adolescents are projected to die of AIDS-related diseases between and without additional investment in HIV prevention, testing and treatment programs. It tells a compelling story about successes achieved over the course of the epidemic, the difficulties encountered and the challenges overcome, and what lies ahead on the continuing road to ending AIDS for children and for all.

Yet, due to its lower HIV prevalence rate, the epidemic has received less attention than in other regions. In recent years, the number of people accessing life-saving drugs has soared, yet children and adolescents have not equally benefited from the scale-up of treatment.